A Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government
Edited by Riccardo Viale and Henry Etzkowitz
Chapter 2: ‘Only Connect’: Academic–Business Research Collaborations and the Formation of Ecologies of Innovation
Paul A. David and J. Stanley Metcalfe UNIVERSITY PATENTING FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER – MIRACULOUS OR MISTAKEN MOVEMENT? The international movement to emulate the US institutional reforms of the early 1980s that gave universities and publicly funded technology research organizations the right (rather than a privilege granted by a sponsoring agency) to own and derive income from the commercialization of IP (intellectual property) based on their researchers’ inventions has developed remarkable momentum since its inception at the end of the 1990s (see, e.g., the survey in Mowery and Sampat, 2005). The process of change and adaptation that was thereby set in motion among the EU member states has not yielded the dramatic effects on innovation and employment growth in Europe that had been promised by those who enthusiastically prescribed a dose of ‘the Bayh–Dole solution’ for the region’s sluggish economies. But such expectations were at best unrealistic, and in too many instances stemmed from contemporary European observers’ mistaken suppositions regarding the sources of the revival of productivity growth and the ‘information technology’ investment boom in the American economy during the late 1990s; and more widely shared misapprehensions regarding the fundamental factors that were responsible for the rising frequency with which patents applications filed at the USPTO during the 1980s and 1990s were citing scientific papers by academic authors.1 The movement to promote ‘technology transfers’ from universities to industry through the medium of patent licensing was fueled by a widespread supposition that European academic research was dangerously disconnected from the processes of...
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