Chapter 12: The Lisbon Agenda and the Key Reforms at National Level: Conclusions of the Debate
Maria João Rodrigues A cross-national analysis of some key indicators clearly shows that the implementation of the Lisbon Agenda varies a great deal. If we want to assess how performances can be improved, we must go beyond a comparison of output indicators, such as the growth rate, labour productivity or the employment rate, and analyse underlying structures and behaviour. To this end, we can use the available research on the varieties of capitalism. 12.1 DEVELOPING THE FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS In order to discuss the implications of the Lisbon Agenda, we must develop the above-mentioned available typologies on varieties of capitalism. First, we should take into account new institutional areas that are relevant for the Lisbon Agenda, notably regarding the environment and social inclusion within the broader context of sustainable development. Second, we should outline the characteristics of a new type of capitalism found in some new Member States, which can be called the ‘Eastern type’ (for a detailed analysis, see Chapter 11 in this volume). Third, we must highlight the factors shaping the various existing institutional settings. These, of course, reﬂect diﬀerent historical backgrounds, but also current diﬀerences in terms of values, collective preferences, resources, general conditions and, last but not least, actors. Finally, we must emphasize that we are not comparing ‘national models’, but rather broader ‘ideal types’ of capitalism, which requires a higher level of abstraction to identify the internal institutional complementarities of each one. 184 The Lisbon Agenda and the key reforms...
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