Chapter 1: From the Medieval and Humboldt University to the Third Generation University
1.1 THREE PHASES OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT To understand the changes universities go through under this time-frame, we need to take a look at their history. We distinguish three generations of universities: the medieval or ﬁrst generation university, the Humboldt or second generation university and the third generation university (3GU). The last of these is still in the future; universities are currently in a transition phase and we can see advanced universities moving towards the 3GU model. A similar transition phase in the era between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment led to the second generation model (Figure 1.1; the dates are indicative). In this chapter, we will describe the ﬁrst and second generation university models and the transition periods. We will then discuss the forces that are pushing the Humboldt-type university beyond its limits. The next chapter will outline the contours of the third generation university. 1.2 THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY The ﬁrst universities stem from the Latin schools, the personalities of famous lecturers and the inheritance of Plato’s Academia and Aristotle’s Lyceum.1 When Christianity was adopted by European countries in the early Middle Ages, schools were started in which all lectures were given in Latin, hence the name Latin schools. Such schools were often located near an important church or a monastery. The Quartier Latin of Paris, still so named today, owes its name to the many Latin schools located there. These schools focused on the preservation of the sacred body of letters and sciences from antiquity in an age of...
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