Legal and Policy Challenges for the World Economy
New Horizons in Environmental and Energy Law series
Edited by Benjamin J. Richardson, Yves Le Bouthillier, Heather McLeod-Kilmurray and Stepan Wood
Chapter 16: Climate Change in the European Union Development Cooperation Policy
Marie-Pierre Lanfranchi* and Sandrine Maljean-Dubois** 1. INTRODUCTION The climate policy of the European Union (EU) towards developing countries deserves our attention for at least three reasons. First, development is a traditional as well as a central element of European international relations. Already the main donor in the world with nearly 57 per cent of the total volume of public development aid (PDA), the EU will provide, until 2015, 90 per cent of the expected increase in aid to meet the Millennium Development Goals.1 Second, the fight against climate change has become another one of its core priorities, at both the internal and international levels. Finally, the European policy regime on climate change, implemented early on and strengthened later in its objectives and means, provides a useful laboratory to reflect the ‘post-2012’ international regime. In 1999, before the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol,2 both issues of climate change and development were linked for the first time in a European policy working paper (European Commission, 2003, pp. 54–55). It was used in support of the conclusions adopted by the European Council on 11 November 1999 (Council Conclusions, 1999), in which it reaffirmed that addressing climate change is a priority for the EU. The Council invited the European Commission to propose an action plan to integrate climate change into the EU’s development cooperation policy. As a result, the political impulse was generated to add a new sectoral dimension to this cooperation policy. The Commission answered in 2003 with the...
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