Chapter 6: Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Bangladesh
M.H. Rahman, M.A. Noor and A. Ahmed
M.H. Rahman, M.A. Noor and A. Ahmed 6.1 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE The principal agents of climate change in Bangladesh are sea-level rise, temperature rise, increased evaporation, changes in precipitation and changes in cross-boundary river flows. These agents have an impact on several main natural system processes, such as, inundation, storm surges, low river flows, saltwater intrusion and river and coastal morphology. Moreover, the climate change-induced impacts may trigger a chain of consequences due to non-climatic activities and their outcomes. A subjective ranking of key climate change impacts and vulnerabilities for Bangladesh identifies water and coastal resources as being of the highest priority in terms of certainty, urgency and severity of impact, as well as the importance of the resources being affected. Impacts of climate change can be divided initially into two major parts: temperature and precipitation. 6.1.1 Temperature and Precipitation The US Country Study Program (Manabe et al. 1991) for Bangladesh projected that temperature would rise 1.3°C by 2030 (over mid-twentieth century levels) and 2.6°C by 2070. Whether precipitation will increase or decrease under climate change is a critical factor in estimating how climate change will affect Bangladesh, given the country’s extreme vulnerability to water-related disasters. During the period 1973–87, about 2.18 million tonnes of rice was damaged due to drought and 2.38 million tonnes due to flood. Drought affects annually about 2.32 million hectares and 1.2 million hectares of cropped land during the Kharif (summer) (November to June) and Rabi (winter) (July to October) seasons,...
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