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Edited by Christopher J. Coyne and Rachel L. Mathers
David Cortright and George A. Lopez 26.1 INTRODUCTION Manipulating trade relations and offering or withholding economic assistance, private investment and favorable trade conditions have been tools by which regimes have long been able to influence each other’s policies. Authors such as Albert Hirschman, David Baldwin and Richard Rosecrance have described the important role that such economic incentives and sanctions have played in international affairs. (Hirschman 1980; Baldwin 1985; Rosecrance 1987). In recent decades, the use of economic sanctions and incentives has become quite frequent. Since World War II, the United States has employed sanctions and other tools of economic influence frequently in the conduct of foreign affairs. In the post-Cold War era the UN Security Council has become increasingly active in imposing multilateral sanctions. In the 1990s, the European Union and the British Commonwealth utilized economic sanctions and incentives as primary means of influencing other states. In recent years, the Organization of American States and the African Union have also utilized multilateral sanctions against their own members. Sanctions are imposed for a wide range of foreign policy purposes that in earlier days would have drawn states into war. In recent decades, nations have adopted sanctions to promote democracy and human rights, to enforce international law and resolutions of the UN Security Council, to prevent military aggression and armed conflict, to encourage military demobilization and post-conflict reconstruction and to counter terrorism and prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. They are means of applying pressure against wrongdoers without incurring the costs and...
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