Challenges, Key Issues and Perspectives
Chapter 2: Globalisation and Natural Resource Management: Principles and Approaches
INTRODUCTION 1. Human beings depend on nature and its resources for the satisfaction of their most basic needs (food, water, air, shelter). This dependence makes the allocation of rights and entitlement to natural resources crucial for any society and the individuals inhabiting it. In the previous chapter we outlined the tension arising out of the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources and the needs of the global economy exponentially highlighted by the increased networks of production and consumption promoted by the process of economic globalisation. Natural resources constitute in most cases the bulk of a country’s wealth and their exploitation, management and distribution of benefits is closely interlinked with the politics of each country and with the groups in power in each society. The dependence of humans upon nature is recognised by the ‘ecosystem approach’1 and the contribution which ecosystem services make towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals places them high on the development agenda. Everyone depends on the environment. It is the foundation of all development, and provides opportunities for people and society as a whole to achieve their hopes and aspirations. Current environmental degradation undermines natural assets, and negatively affects human well-being. It is clear that a deteriorating environment is an injustice to both current and future generations.2 1 ‘The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies...
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