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Chapter 18: Coevolution, Emergence and Economic Development: Some Lessons from the Israeli and Mexican Experience
Gabriela Dutrénit and Morris Teubal 1. INTRODUCTION Whilst everybody agrees that innovation nowadays lies at the heart of economic growth in both advanced and industrializing economies, there is no agreement concerning the processes linking the two. From a simplistic view it can be argued that innovation influences economic growth directly (probably a New Growth Theory’s view). Another point of view follows a more structuralist and systems-evolutionary perspective where in order for innovation to affect economic growth it should trigger structural change, which for the purposes of this discussion is identified with new sectors (or widely defined product classes), markets, clusters, large multinational companies, and other forms of what may be termed Higher Level Organizations (HLO). These HLOs can be characterized as multi-agent structures (for example, networks, regional or sectoral innovation systems). In this view, the impact of innovation will be relatively weak if it does not trigger the emergence of these higher-level, multi-agent structures, and will be strong if it does.1 Our point of view corresponds to the structuralist/evolutionary perspective to economic growth, which goes back to Schumpeter (1934, 1939) and Kuznets (1971, 1973), and more recently to many authors (for example, Saviotti and Pyka, 2004, among others). A relatively early exponent was Kuznets (1971, 1973), who introduced the concept of modern economic growth, a process which involves, in parallel to the growth of output per capita, a high rate of change in the structure of output and a high rate of accumulation of production relevant knowledge. The ‘early...
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