Jacques Mairesse and Pierre Mohnen PRESENTING THE INNOVATION SURVEYS 17.1 In the late 1980s scholars of technological change were concerned about measuring more aspects of innovation than the mere information contained in the R&D surveys. They sat down under the auspices of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and wrote the so-called Oslo Manual, which set out the guidelines for a new type of survey, the innovation survey (OECD, 1992).1 In the EU countries under the coordination of Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, a common core questionnaire was agreed upon and surveys were launched under the acronym of CIS (Community Innovation Surveys). These surveys have been repeated every four years. So far there exist four waves of CIS (CIS 1 for 1990–92,2 CIS 2 for 1994–96, CIS 3 for 1998–2000 and CIS 4 for 2002–04).3 Similar surveys have been conducted in other countries, including emerging, transition and developing countries. In total, more than 50 countries have carried out at least one innovation survey.4 The innovation surveys provide us with three broad groups of measures: innovation inputs, innovation outputs and modalities of innovation. The innovation inputs encompass besides R&D, other expenditure related to innovation such as acquisitions of patents and licenses, product design, training of personnel, trial production and market analysis. Four types of innovation outputs are distinguished in the latest version of CIS, namely the introduction of new products (which can be new to the firm...
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