Chapter 2: Community-based Local Development and the Peace Initiative of the PDPMM in Colombia: Resource Mobilization under Extreme Conditions
Noriko Hataya INTRODUCTION Mainstream social movement theories have developed in advanced capitalist countries where affluent resources for mobilization are available and citizen rights are protected. In Latin American countries where these two conditions are extremely limited by the political process and unequal resource distribution, social movements have developed with characteristic dynamics which are not explained simply by conventional theories (Calderón 1986, 1995; Eckstein 1989; Slater 1994; Escobar and Alvarez 1992; Martías Rossi 2005; Duquette et al. 2005; Archila 2005). Colombia is a country of sharp contrasts. Violent conflicts have persisted for more than five decades under a democratic regime. Despite stable economic development backed by abundant natural resources, more than half the population are not able to meet their basic human needs. Many people suffer from fear and want. In order to bring about a change in such circumstances, sustainable development and peace-building are necessary. However, resources are extremely limited and the people’s actions are controlled by violent repression. How is a social movement in search of development and peace possible under such extreme conditions? This chapter will focus on the Program for Development and Peace in Middle Magdalena (PDPMM) as a case of a social movement for regional development and peace-building through a local initiative in Colombia. The local context in which the PDPMM emerged includes a long history of armed conflicts and extreme poverty. It shows the people’s accumulated grievances and needs leading to their demands, but also that resources were limited under a situation of...
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