Chapter 10: Resources, Organizations and Institutions: Intermediaries for Social Movements in Development Context
10. Resources, organizations and institutions: intermediaries for social movements in the development context Kumiko Makino and Shinichi Shigetomi PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES TO SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT In this volume, we have explored the question of why social movements emerge in certain forms and with certain mechanisms in developing countries. One way to answer to this question would be to explain how the movement actors comprehend the situation and how they choose their behavior to achieve their goals. Indeed, modern theories of social movements have developed a methodology for such ‘purposive explanations’ (Tilly 1978, p. 6). However, this volume has attempted to explain the phenomena of social movements in the light of causes which are external to the movement actors. We assume that this causal approach is both necessary and valid since the social movements in the developing world are based on different circumstances to those in post-industrial Western democracies which the modern social movement theories take for granted. The differences in developing countries include the facts that: more constraints on economic resources limit the surplus which may possibly be mobilized for social movements; more direct authoritarian control on citizens’ political behavior limits the choices of collective action; and stricter control of the mass media and communication constrains the means of frame dissemination. Moreover, in the developing world there is a much smaller number of highly educated individuals who are free from their societal position and are expected, in the modern theories, to be the main actors of social...
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