Table of Contents

International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume I

International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume I

General Issues and Regional Groups

Elgar original reference

Edited by Miroslav N. Jovanović

With this Handbook, Miroslav Jovanović has provided readers with both an excellent stand-alone original reference book as well as the first volume in a comprehensive three-volume set. This introduction into a rich and expanding academic and practical world of international economic integration also provides a theoretical and analytical framework to the reader, presenting select analytical studies and encouraging further research.

Chapter 17: East Asia’s Economic Integration and Institutional Cooperation for Further Integration

Daisuke Hiratsuka

Subjects: economics and finance, international economics, regional economics, urban and regional studies, regional economics


Daisuke Hiratsuka 1 INTRODUCTION De facto economic integration (informal integration), in particular, in trade, has developed in East Asia, while de jure economic integration (formal integration) in the form of regional trade agreements (RTAs) lag behind in the region (Fouquin et al., 2006). When de facto economic integration of East Asia is discussed, we are usually referring to 10 ASEAN countries, plus China, Japan and Korea (ASEAN+3) plus Taiwan and Hong Kong since production networks have developed among those countries. Indeed, East Asia, including Hong Kong and Taiwan, has attained a higher intra-regional trade ratio than any other geographical combination in East Asia. On the other hand, when we discuss de jure economic integration, we are instead usually referring to the geographical area of ASEAN+3, because the ASEAN+3 regional cooperation process has been evolving in many fields, such as currency, energy, environment, health and so on, since 1997 when the Asian currency crisis erupted. More recently, the ASEAN+6 regional cooperation process, comprising 10 ASEAN countries plus Australia, China, Japan, Korea, India and New Zealand, is emerging. The first East Asia Summit (EAS) was held in Malaysia in 2005, and since then the ASEAN+3 meeting and the EAS have been held sequentially on the same day. This chapter covers the ASEAN+6 countries. Hong Kong and Taiwan are excluded from consideration because the regional cooperation process on institutions has been advancing on a government to government basis in East Asia. The geographical area of ASEAN+6 has an increasing influence on the global...

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