Trends, Patterns and Control
Edited by Heinz Fassmann, Max Haller and David Lane
Heinz Fassmann and David Lane This collection contains an overview of different aspects of mobility and migration in the development of the enlarged European Union. The chapters address the forms which these phenomena are taking and the social, political and economic problems involved. The book has an introductory chapter followed by sections on the costs and benefits of migration, patterns of migration and mobility, problems of migration, and state control and citizen rights. 1.1 OVERVIEW Migration out of, to, and within Europe is nothing new. Politically and religiously motivated displacement, the migration of the highly qualified, the seasonal migration of farm labourers, and the migration of trades people and students, had already existed before the nineteenth century in various forms. What changed with the industrialization of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was the quantitative degree of intra-European and intercontinental migration, as well as the average distance of migration. Geographical mobility exploded in the nineteenth century and the amount of long distance migration reached previously unseen numbers leading to this phase being labelled as the ‘century of the great drift’. Europe is currently experiencing a new period of the great drift. The aggregation of national statistics (even with all their ambiguities and omissions) shows that in the EU27 the foreign born population constitutes about 40.5 million people, representing about 8.8 per cent of its total population. Less than half of them have adopted the citizenship of their respective country of destination. Around 22.9 million are still foreigners by citizenship. The highest...