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Edited by Philip Cooke, Bjørn Asheim, Ron Boschma, Ron Martin, Dafna Schwartz and Franz Tödtling
Chapter 26: Culture as a Source for Growth and Change: Some Evidences from Cultural Clusters in Andalusia
26 Culture as a source for growth and change: some evidence from cultural clusters in Andalusia Luciana Lazzeretti INTRODUCTION Culture1 in these last few years has been recognized as a flywheel of economic development (Power and Scott, 2004) in both industrialized and underdeveloped countries, and cultural clusters and districts have widely diffused in regions and cities at an international scale (Scott, 2005). In Europe this phenomenon has developed particularly due to the substantial and heterogeneous cultural, artistic, environmental and human heritage, which consistently contributes to the variety of forms of local development (OECD, 2005, 2007). The issue of the economic enhancement of art and culture was originally tackled by studies in cultural economics (Towse, 2003), but was later integrated with contributions from creative economy (Florida, 2002), a subject field that highlighted the role of the human factor and of the creative class and put creative cities side by side with cultural cities and industries as the main protagonists of the knowledge economy’s development (Cooke and Piccaluga, 2006). The production of culture, as well as its role as a flywheel of economic development, have also turned into an increasingly important resource for innovation, because this is able to activate new industrial filières and can regenerate not only products but also places and industries (Cooke and Lazzeretti, 2008). In fact, culture becomes the engine of a creative process which combines and recombines new with pre-existing cognitions, offering a completely different wisdom. ‘Add new work to another’, wrote Jacobs (1969, 59): in...
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