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Edited by Philip Cooke, Bjørn Asheim, Ron Boschma, Ron Martin, Dafna Schwartz and Franz Tödtling
Chapter 29: Open Innovation and Regional Growth
Peter Prud’homme van Reine INTRODUCTION The concept of open innovation, launched by Chesbrough (2003), has quickly gained acceptance among researchers (Christensen et al., 2005; Gann, 2005) and practitioners (Kirschbaum, 2005), and its introduction has resulted in a growing body of literature and ongoing research (Chesbrough et al., 2006; Cooke, 2005a, 2005b, 2007a; Chesbrough and Schwartz, 2007; Fleming and Waguespack, 2007). Defined as: ‘The use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation and expand the markets for external use of innovation’, open innovation assumes that companies should use not just internally developed ideas, but also ideas developed externally, and should create external paths for ideas to go to market in addition to the internal path for innovation. This is in contrast with the ‘old’ model of closed innovation, which assumed that innovation processes need to be controlled by the company for example by investing in internal research and development (R&D) and by controlling intellectual property to protect innovations coming out of these investments (De Jong et al., 2008). Creation and sharing of knowledge in networks is essential to make open innovation strategies work (OECD, 2008). Although research on open innovation and regional knowledge networks is still in an early stage (Simard and West, 2006), three relevant bodies of literature for understanding how open innovation impacts regional growth can be identified: ● ● ● The literature on knowledge transfer in networks (March, 1991; Powell et al., 1996; Dyer and Singh, 1998; Levin and Cross, 2004) and the concept of dynamic...
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