Chapter 7: Ovulatory Shifts in Women’s Social Motives and Behaviors: Implications for Corporate Organizations
Kristina M. Durante and Gad Saad INTRODUCTION More than ever before, women wield significant power and influence in today’s economy as consumers, employees and/or employers. In the USA, women control nearly 80 percent of all household spending decisions and women bring in at least half or more of the income in 55 percent of households (Barletta, 2007). Further, women now hold high-ranking positions in the workforce, some equal to or higher than that of men. In US corporations women constitute 50 percent of managers and professionals (ibid.). Worldwide, the number of women employed in the workforce grew by almost 200 million over the past decade. In 2007 there were 1.2 billion women in the workforce compared to 1.8 billion men (International Labour Office, Geneva, 2008), indicating that the gap is steadily closing. In the USA, women held 14.8 percent of the corporate board-appointed officer positions at Fortune 500 companies, and 12 women held the position of CEO in 2007 (Catalyst Census, 2007; Fortune, 2007). Currently, female enrollment in MBA programs worldwide has reached 30 percent and will likely continue to grow (Damast, 2007). As women’s spending power and role in the workforce strengthens, marketers and corporate managers stand to benefit from a better understanding of the dynamics of female social motivations and behavior. One important determinant of women’s behaviors, cognitions and emotions is the hormonal changes that occur across the menstrual cycle. Shifts in hormonal status across the cycle likely impact a woman’s decision-making both in the marketplace and in...
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