Chapter 15: Beyond Attitudes and Norms: Trust Commitment and HR Values as Triggers of Intention to Leave
Shay S. Tzafrir and Guy Enosh INTRODUCTION Why do people voluntarily exit organizations? The process of leaving or exiting an organization has been a concern for researchers and practitioners for a long time. Interestingly, various terms have been used to describe the phenomenon, such as ‘exit’, ‘turnover’ and so on. Although the different usage indicates some difference in meaning at certain points, for example, ‘exit’ meaning leaving the organization, while ‘turnover’ may mean also changing the position within the organization, many authors use them interchangeably. The issue of exit – leaving the organization – has been discussed in extant literature within the context of organizational processes such as downsizing and layoff (Brockner et al., 1997; Baruch and Hind, 2000). Much less attention has been focused on voluntary leaving based on choices made by the employee him- or herself. In this chapter, we shall use the term ‘exit’ as describing the act of leaving the organization voluntarily. For organizational effectiveness, the crucial, mostly negative consequences of members exiting the organization (regardless of such leaving being voluntary or forced) are well documented in the literature (for example, Mobley, 1982; Maertz et al., 1998). At the organizational level, workforce performance is negatively affected in the short term. Furthermore, organizations are required to invest extensive amounts in order to finance the leaving employees as well as the added staffing and training costs associated with the loss of personnel. In addition, operational disruption may occur, leading to losses in capacity, production, and profits, especially in organizations where...
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