Chapters 8–11 of this work introduce the core elements and requirements of Article 102 TFEU. In these chapters it is seen that the elements of Article 102 are not defined by the Treaty itself. Rather, their meaning has been elucidated through the case law. Chapter 8 considers how the concept of dominance has been defined. Chapters 9 and 11 examine the concept of abuse, assessing how Article 102 applies to the exploitative behaviour and exclusionary non-pricing practices of dominant firms. This chapter focuses on other potentially abusive pricing practices of dominant firms, in particular: predatory pricing; selective low cost pricing; margin squeeze; rebates and price discrimination. The Court of Justice (ECJ) has set out general statements about the nature of the concept of an abuse.
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