Challenges and Solutions
Edited by Martin Kahanec and Klaus F. Zimmermann
Chapter 3: The Practice of Minority Integration in the European Union: What Works
Martin Kahanec INTRODUCTION As argued in the previous chapter, the integration of ethnic minorities is a legitimate policy objective strongly desired by ethnic minorities; and equal treatment is the most preferred principle which should govern integration policies. While those and other presented findings certainly provide new insights for integration policy making, it is necessary to go beyond the general results. In this chapter we shed light on what works and what does not for integration practices in the field. Indeed the success and failure of labor market integration of ethnic minorities is largely determined by non-governmental and business initiatives as well as public programs and public–private partnerships in the field, whether they are implemented at the local, regional or even national level.1 Such integration initiatives may include initiatives from non-governmental organizations to increase the public awareness of social costs of the social exclusion, employers’ corporate social responsibility programs aimed at integrating vulnerable groups into employment, or partnerships between non-governmental organizations and state schools aiming at improving access to education for minority pupils. In this chapter we provide a comparative evaluation of a number of integration initiatives, with the objective of identifying and evaluating the factors which are relevant for their success or failure. We first present a descriptive account of integration initiatives across Europe using the results of the IZA Expert Opinion Survey, which provides information on 192 integration initiatives reported by experts surveyed across the EU, shedding light on the roles various broader factors have had in determining...
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