Challenges and Solutions
Edited by Martin Kahanec and Klaus F. Zimmermann
Chapter 13: The Social and Labor Market Outcomes of Ethnic Minorities in the UK
Timothy J. Hatton INTRODUCTION There has been a substantial and growing ethnic minority presence in Britain since the 1960s. While ethnic minorities as a whole face some disadvantage in the labor market, there are marked differences in performance between broadly defined ethnic groups. This chapter surveys some of the recent literature on the correlates and causes of ethnic disadvantage in the labor market. While anti-discrimination legislation has been in place since the 1960s, it has recently become a major focus for reform. The chapter outlines and evaluates the evolution of policy and the current reform program in light of the evidence on the labor market performance of ethnic minorities. STATISTICAL OVERVIEW Data Ethnic minorities can be identified in a number of ways, but in the UK the definition usually applies to those with some non-White racial origin. Ethnic minorities are self-identified in a number of data sets, notably the decennial census (for 1991 and 2001), the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS since 1973; ethnic minorities identified since 1979; taken quarterly since 1983) and the General Household Survey (GHS since 1974; ethnic minorities identified since 1983). According to the 2001 census, ethnic minorities are 7.9 percent of the population, of which half have some Asian (particularly South Asian) background. Table 13.1 illustrates these proportions for the three most recent waves of the LFS for 2005 and 2006. 283 M2612 - KAHANEC PRINT.indd 283 18/05/2011 15:22 Table 13.1 Percentage of ethnic minority population Percentage female Percentage aged < 25 Percentage aged > 64...
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