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Chapter 19: Globalization, a Knowledge-based Regime and Higher Education: Where do Mexican Universities Stand?
Alma Maldonado-Maldonado INTRODUCTION: MEXICO’S STANDING IN A GLOBAL WORLD This chapter discusses the complex relationships between globalization, a knowledgebased economy and higher education in Mexico. The first two sections review the concept of globalization, internationalization and a knowledge-based economy. The third section discusses Mexico’s position in the knowledge-production race. The fourth section analyzes the discourses and policies of 25 Mexican higher education institutions (HEIs) on globalization and internationalization. The fifth section suggests ways to analyze the current situation of Mexican universities facing globalization and the challenges on the international knowledge regime. The last section provides concluding remarks. In a recent article, Cantwell and Maldonado-Maldonado (2009) discuss the differences in meaning between the globalization of higher education and internationalization of higher education. One of their main criticisms is the lack of agency implicit in the concept of internationalization of higher education that most experts in the higher education field use (Altbach, 2004; Altbach and Knight, 2006; de Wit, 1999; Knight, 2004; van der Wende, 2001; van Vught et al., 2003). Defining internationalization as the higher education response to globalization constrains the possibility that universities have to be more than a passive recipient and contribute more in shaping what globalization means. As an attempt to enrich the debate, here we suggest that the topic of the knowledge-based economy brings a dimension in which universities can play a role directly influencing globalization. According to Waters (1995, p. 5), ‘Globalization is a social process in which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social...
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