Australia and the USA Compared
Monash Studies in Global Movements series
Edited by John Higley, John Nieuwenhuysen and Stine Neerup
Chapter 2: Flows of Immigrants 1993–2008: Australia
Graeme Hugo The massive change in Australian immigration since the early 1990s has partly been a response to pervasive globalization processes, but also the result of internal pressures and proactive, evidence-based policy making within Australia. Tracking changes in Australia’s migration patterns is facilitated by the country being an island continent but also having one of the world’s most comprehensive data collections with respect to both international migration flow and stocks (Hugo 2004a). This chapter begins with a consideration of the shifts that have occurred in the scale and composition of immigration, beginning with an examination of patterns of permanent settlement. While settlement migration was the overwhelmingly dominant element in Australian international migration in the half-century following the Second World War, there have been some major shifts in the last decade. Hence the growth of temporary migration is examined here. The chapter concludes with a brief assessment of some of the major contemporary and evolving issues relating to migration in Australia. RECENT TRENDS IN SETTLER MIGRATION IN AUSTRALIA Australia has an organized programme for permanent settlement of immigrants. However, people who enter Australia under its migration programme are only one component of the contribution made by international migration to Australia’s population growth. The other elements are: ● ● ● ● New Zealand migration, which refers to the arrival of New Zealanders under the Trans-Tasman Travel Agreement. Long-term visitors to the country. Emigration of residents. Category jumping from temporary to permanent residence. 22 Flows of immigrants 1993–2008: Australia 23 The migration programme operates within levels...
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