Elgar original reference
Edited by Derek L. Braddon and Keith Hartley
Derek L. Braddon and Keith Hartley CONFLICT ECONOMICS AS A NEWLY EMERGING FIELD Wars have a long history. Nations have been involved in conflicts since the origins of humankind. These have included tribal conflict and wars of conquest (for example, the Persian and Roman Empires, the First and Second World Wars). The end of the Cold War was expected to lead to peace, stability and security. Reality was different and the world continues its search for peace. Since 1990, there have been regional conflicts involving Afghanistan, Bosnia, Iraq, Israel and Kosovo. There have been numerous local and civil wars, some of which have involved ethnic cleansing, whilst new threats have emerged in the form of international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (biological, chemical and nuclear). The consequences of conflict are immediate and direct in terms of deaths, injuries and the destruction of property and infrastructures. But there are indirect and long-term effects in terms of impacts on future generations, land-use and the environment. For example, there were over 60 million military and civilian deaths in the Second World War, massive destruction of major cities in Europe, the USSR and Japan as well as enormous displacement of populations. Longer term, the death rate amongst males in military service has impacts on future population growth; the deployment of land mines affects agricultural use; and the use of nuclear weapons has health impacts on future generations. Inevitably, the horrendous costs of conflict have led to a focus on understanding...