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Edited by Derek L. Braddon and Keith Hartley
Jurgen Brauer and J. Paul Dunne 13.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is concerned with macroeconomic aspects of violence, a topic of considerable importance and one that has expanded in coverage as complexities and interactions and the economic ramifications of violence are becoming apparent to researchers. Much of the literature on the economics of violence has been driven by post-Cold War events of large-scale collective violence in Central and West Africa in the 1990s, and to some extent in the Asia-Pacific region, but the post-Cold War world has also seen a change in the nature of conflict and a recognition of the importance of widening the scope of analysis. Violence is not simply collective, armed violence any more (war and civil war). Violence refers to all acts of self-harm, interpersonal violence and collective violence, armed or unarmed (WHO, 2002). Collective violence generally is taken to denote both states or other political entities that are in, or at risk of, violent internal or external conflict and those that are in an insecure post-war predicament or wracked by pervasive criminal violence – as is the case for almost all Central American and Caribbean states (UNODC, 2007). These different aspects of violence have been studied by different academic disciplines, with political scientists and defense economists tending to study the causes, consequences and, lately, potential remedies of large-scale collective violence; and criminologists, public health experts and crime economists tending to study interpersonal violence and self-harm.1 The economic importance of all aspects of violence has started to be...
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