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Chapter 11: Regulation of Carbon Nanotubes and Other High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles: Approaching this Challenge from the Perspective of Asbestos
Robert J. Aitken, Sheona A.K. Peters, Alan D. Jones and Vicki Stone 11.1 INTRODUCTION The term ‘nanotechnology’ represents a multidisciplinary grouping of physical, chemical, biological, engineering, and electronic processes, materials, applications and concepts, in which the defining characteristic is one of size (Aitken et al., 2004). Emerging nanotechnology is already underpinning a multibillion $US market, and is predicted to be associated with $US3.1 trillion worth of manufactured goods by 2015 (Lux Research, 2008). Nanotechnology products include nanoparticles (NPs) (particles with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale, 1–100 nm) and nanoobjects (discrete pieces of material with one or more external dimensions in the nanoscale), such as nanotubes (British Standards Institute (BSI), 2007). Nanotubes are a particularly novel form of nano-objects, about which there is great interest and excitement. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), first discovered by Iijima (1991), are a new form of carbon molecule, similar in structure to the spherical molecule C60 (buckminsterfullerene) but elongated to form tubular structures 1–2 nm in diameter. CNTs can be produced with very high aspect ratios (ratio of length and width) and range in length from a few micrometres up to millimetres (Donaldson et al., 2006). There are many types and variants of CNT but they can broadly be categorized into two types: 1. 2. single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) which consist of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a cylinder; and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which comprises multiple concentric layers of single-walled tubes, with diameters up to tens of nm and...
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