Process, Practice and Policy
Edited by Colette Henry and Anne de Bruin
Colette Henry and Anne de Bruin The creative economy, and the broad spectrum of creative industries that it encompasses, is an essential component of growth, employment and international trade in today’s global age (Higgs and Cunningham, 2008; United Nations, 2008). Indeed, in a recessionary and post-recessionary era, this somewhat heterogeneous set of industries (Flew and Cunningham, 2010) becomes even more attractive as a source of potential employment and entrepreneurial endeavour. This has already been recognized in the UK, with policy-makers being urged to target investment towards the ‘drivers of employment in the future’, ensuring that knowledge-intensive sectors such as the creative industries are given the support they need to fulfil their critical role in the recovery process (Lee et al., 2010, p. 30; UK Trade and Investment, 2006). The term ‘creative industries’ first emerged in the 1990s and was originally used to describe all industries based on creativity that generated intellectual property (Henry, 2009). However, as noted by Howkins (2002), this description was quickly narrowed to include industries with a particular artistic or cultural bent. Amongst the many sectors that feature within the category of creative industries, arts and crafts, designer fashion, film, theatre and performing arts, advertising, publishing, broadcast media and recorded music would appear to be the most prominent. Some critics have suggested that the inclusion of software development, computer services, digital media and communications in the creative industries’ definition serves to inflate the sector artificially (Garnham, 2005), but others have highlighted the exclusion of particular industries such...