Comparative Ocean Governance

Comparative Ocean Governance

Place-Based Protections in an Era of Climate Change

New Horizons in Environmental and Energy Law series

Robin Kundis Craig

Comparative Ocean Governance examines the world’s attempts to improve ocean governance through place-based management – marine protected areas, ocean zoning, marine spatial planning – and evaluates this growing trend in light of the advent of climate change and its impacts on the seas.

Chapter 8: Making Marine Spatial Planning Climate Change Dynamic

Robin Kundis Craig

Subjects: environment, climate change, environmental economics, environmental governance and regulation, environmental law, environmental management, law - academic, comparative law, environmental law

Extract

If the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument’s contributions to climate change adaptation are so far largely accidental, as Chapter 6 discussed, then the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park presents a place-based governance system that has consciously incorporated climate change adaptation considerations and expanded actions on those considerations to land-based pollution. Moreover, as Chapter 7 discussed, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority has demonstrated that zoning plans can both change—although the re-zoning process took almost a decade— and incorporate flexibility for interim responses, as in the park’s Special Management Areas. Nevertheless, both the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and Great Barrier Reef Marine Park have themselves largely remained stationary: The outer boundaries of these two-place based management regimes have been adjusted but not fundamentally moved. Admittedly, such stasis in place-based marine management is unlikely to become a significant problem for coral reef ecosystem governance even in the climate change era, because corals grow fairly slowly, generally in the range of centimeters per year. Indeed, coral growth on the Great Barrier Reef may be slowing.1 However, other ocean places are far more dynamic than coral reefs. For example, many species of kelp grow extremely fast. Indeed, “[r]apid growth by giant kelp allows it to dominate nearshore habitats quickly. Kelp can also quickly recover from adverse environmental conditions (e.g., high wave action in winter, El Niño events).”2 As climate change alters ocean conditions and kelp forests move in response, the boundaries for ecosystem management regimes will...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information