Perspectives, Issues, Research and Practice
New Horizons in Management series
Edited by Simon L. Albrecht
Chapter 9: Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Qualitative Review and Directions for Future Research
Saija Mauno, Ulla Kinnunen, Anne Mäkikangas and Taru Feldt Introduction What drives employees to work is a question which has prompted a lot of research since the early theories of human motivation were introduced in the 1950s. During the last two decades research on work motivation has expanded and many new constructs have been introduced. One of these is “work engagement” (WE), which refers to a positive, fulfilling workrelated state of mind characterized by three related dimensions: vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2002; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2010). Overall, energy and identification form the core content of WE; these two experiences are captured by the dimensions of vigor and dedication. “Vigor” refers to energy and mental resilience at work and the willingness to invest high effort in one’s work. The motivational aspects of WE, comprising the facets of arousal, maintenance and direction of action (Katzell & Thompson, 1990), are best captured by vigor. “Dedication” is characterized by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge in relation to one’s work; this dimension has conceptual similarity with having a strong identification with one’s work. “Absorption” refers to the feeling of being fully concentrated on one’s work and finding detaching oneself from work difficult. This dimension resembles the concept of flow (Csikzentmihalyi, 1990). The rapid proliferation of WE research has sparked interest in both its antecedents and outcomes. Consequently, the correlates of engagement have already been the topic of a few reviews (Christian & Slaughter, 2007; Simpson, 2008; Halbesleben, 2010). These reviews...
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