Lessons for Policy, Industry and Science
Edited by Martin Junginger, Wilfried van Sark and André Faaij
Chapter 13: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies
Machteld van den Broek, Sonia Yeh, Ric Hoefnagels, Martin Junginger, Edward Rubin and André Faaij 13.1 INTRODUCTION1 In the last decade, carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) has been increasingly considered as an option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (Metz et al., 2005). CCS is a process consisting of three steps: the separation of CO2 from gas streams at industrial and energy-related sources, the transport of CO2 to a storage location, and the long-term isolation of CO2 from the atmosphere. Application of CCS is especially promising at large CO2 point sources such as power plants, industrial facilities (e.g. synthetic fuel, hydrogen, ammonia production facilities) and natural gas processing since these facilities are responsible for the largest part of the worldwide CO2 emissions. After capturing the CO2, it is compressed and transported for storage. Potential technical storage methods are: geological storage (in geological formations, such as oil and gas fields, unminable coal beds and deep saline formations), ocean storage (injection of CO2 into a deep part of the ocean) and industrial fixation of CO2 into inorganic carbonates. However, only geological sequestration is considered to be feasible for commercial use at the present time. Although CCS was first proposed as a GHG mitigation option in the 1970s, government funding for R&D only appeared in the 1990s. At the European level, for instance, the Third Framework Programme (FP) (1990–94) covered the first CCS activities (mainly CO2 capture research), and in 1993 a...