Lessons for Policy, Industry and Science
Edited by Martin Junginger, Wilfried van Sark and André Faaij
Martin Weiss, Reinhard Madlener and Martin Jakob 17.1 INTRODUCTION End use technologies for space heating and cooling comprise a large and heterogeneous group of products that provide heating and cooling services for rooms and other enclosed spaces in residential and commercial buildings. Two categories of space heating and cooling technologies can be differentiated: 1. active technologies, which convert energy from external sources (e.g., supplied by biomass, coal, fuel oil, natural gas, electricity or solar radiation) to provide space heating or cooling (e.g., simple wood- or lignite-fired furnaces and boilers, condensing and non-condensing oil and gas boilers, solar boilers, heat pumps, hot-cold storage systems, electric resistance radiators, chillers, ventilation with heat recovery systems); passive technologies, which do not rely on external energy supply but merely function as a (selective) barrier for heat transfer between the buildings’ interior and the environment (e.g., building envelopes, wall and roof insulation elements, window glazing). 2. Space heating and cooling is as old as human civilization. Examples for modern space heating technologies include (i) condensing gas boilers, which were introduced on the European market in the early 1980s as a further development of boilers, which were introduced in the building sector in the late 1950s to replace long-traditional wood and coal stoves and furnaces; and (ii) heat pump systems, which date back to the 1940s, but first gained importance for residential space heating after the first oil crisis in 1973 mainly in Switzerland and Sweden (Zogg, 2008 and Neij et al., 2008). Modern technologies for active...
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