Chapter 4: Project GLOBE and Cross-cultural Advertising Research: Developing a Theory-driven Approach
Narda R. Quigley, Mary Sully de Luque and Robert J. House INTRODUCTION In their 2007 review, Okazaki and Mueller found that cultural values were the most studied topic in the realm of international and cross-cultural advertising research. Indeed, 36.8 percent of articles meeting their criteria and published between 1995 and 2006 reported studies involving cultural values. Because values ‘determine, at a basic level, people’s choices and desires . . ., [they] may be one of the most powerful explanations of, and influences on, consumer behavior’ (Okazaki & Mueller, 2007, p. 504). Clearly, the extent to which cultural values might influence consumer behavior is quite relevant to advertising research. Given that multinational companies frequently launch worldwide and localized advertising campaigns, the practical implications of this type of research are immense. This chapter begins by introducing the Project GLOBE study (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness; House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman & Gupta, 2004) and considering the nature of culture at the societal level of analysis. In so doing, we will compare three recent conceptualizations of cultural values (Hofstede, 1980; House et al., 2004; and Schwartz, 2001) and compare and contrast the approaches of Hofstede (1980, 2001) and House et al. (2004). It is worth noting that excellent discussions of this latter comparison can be found in the first published volume of the Project GLOBE study (House et al., 2004), in addition to Hofstede (2006), Javidan, House, Dorfman, Hanges and Sully de Luque (2006), and Okazaki and Mueller (2007). We then build three alternative theoretical models, based on...
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