Chapter 5: Typologies of Cultural Dimensions and their Applicability to International Advertising
Ralf Terlutter, Sandra Diehl and Barbara Mueller INTRODUCTION One important area of cross-cultural research identifies sets of cultural values useful in describing cultures. Resulting frameworks outline a number of cultural dimensions that attempt to explain a significant portion of country-to-country variance. Often, international advertising research draws upon data of cultural dimensions reported in these typologies. We begin with a brief discussion of individual versus societal levels of culture, cultural values versus cultural practices, as well as a comparison of country versus global consumer segments. After this, four typologies of cultural dimensions are highlighted. The first is Hofstede’s typology of cultural values, by far the most prominent approach to cultural dimensions in marketing and advertising research. Next, two less frequently applied frameworks are presented: Schwartz’s cultural values, and Inglehart’s World Values Survey (WVS). Finally, the GLOBE framework is examined. We conclude with a culture-based model of international advertising. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH As the level of global trade increases, corporations around the world have a growing need for knowledge of foreign cultures. Because consumers are increasingly found abroad, advertisers devote a rising percentage of their advertising budgets to foreign markets. For instance, U.S.based Procter & Gamble, the world’s largest advertiser, in 2009 invested two-thirds of measured advertising spendings in non-U.S. markets, generating nearly two-thirds of their revenues from outside the U.S. (Advertising Age, 2010). Netherlands-based Unilever, the second-largest 88 M2841 - OKAZAKI 9781848448582 PRINT.indd 88 26/01/2012 10:04 Typologies of cultural dimensions 89 Characteristics of nations/cultures Objective criteria • economic criteria, e.g...
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