Chapter 4: The Influence of Valence and Intensity of Affect on Intuitive Processing
Seymour Epstein1 Most research on intuition fails to consider it within a broadly meaningful context that is necessary for understanding its operating rules and its boundary condition. Rather, researchers too often view intuition as an isolated phenomenon that can be distinguished not so much by what it is but by what it is not, describing it as knowledge acquired without analytical reasoning or awareness. Others who attempt to explain what intuition is do not agree on the principles by which it operates (Epstein, 2010; Sinclair et al., 2002). Cognitive–experiential self-theory (CEST, Epstein, 2003) provides a remedy for this situation by proposing a dual process theory in which an automatic associative learning system that operates outside of awareness and that is shared by all higher-order animals is used to explain what intuition is, what it does, and how it does it (Epstein, 2010). This chapter is divided as follows. The next section provides a summary of the most relevant aspects of CEST for understanding intuition, followed by a presentation of research influenced by CEST on the influence of the valence and intensity of affect on intuitive and analytical information processing. The final section concludes with a summary of the more important inclusions. COGNITIVE–EXPERIENTIAL SELF-THEORY According to CEST, humans operate with two information-processing systems, an experiential system, which is an automatic learning system that humans share with other higher-order animals and a rational/analytic system, which is a verbal reasoning system unique to humans. The systems operate by different rules and...
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