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Edited by Mika Gabrielsson and V. H. Manek Kirpalani
Chapter 3: Determinants of Different Types of Born Globals
Matthias Baum, Christian Schwens and Rüdiger Kabst INTRODUCTION Young entrepreneurial firms which act on an international level from inception, so-called ‘born globals’ (BGs), have been widely discussed in the international business, management, and entrepreneurship community over the last two decades (for reviews see, for example, Coviello and Jones 2004; Keupp and Gassmann 2009). This development is a consequence of BGs’ importance for future economic development and their increasing empirical occurrence (Bürgel et al. 2004). The main body of BG research is directed towards the comparison between early and late internationalizing firms and which factors enable new ventures to become international directly or shortly after inception. Surprisingly, most conducted inquiries fail to scrutinize the question of whether BGs are a homogeneous or a heterogeneous group of firms. Oviatt and McDougall (1994) were the first to create a theoretical framework based on the internationalization of new ventures, challenging the traditional international process models. Even though most of their arguments have been observed intensively, less attention has been devoted to the four types of BGs they identified on a theoretical basis. Thus, it remains unclear how firm-and entrepreneur-related conditions influence the formation of the different types of BGs. Several recently conducted studies have accommodated the differences among BGs by examining the intensity (Bloodgood et al. 1996; Reuber and Fischer 1997; Sapienza et al. 2005) and diversity (Kundu and Katz 2003; Preece et al. 1998) of international activities or modes of foreign market entry (Zahra et al. 2000), showing that BGs are...
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