Building on the experiences of the Detroit, Chicago and Penn Jersey transportation studies, the sequential travel forecasting procedure was adopted by several North American metropolitan areas by 1970 and transferred to large conurbations in the UK (Chapters 2–3). Unrelated to these early studies, major advances in mathematics and mathematical economics occurred during the post-war period, some evolving from wartime applications of mathematics and statistics in the US and UK. Efforts to apply mathematics and economics to solve defence mobilisation problems led the US Department of the Air Force to investigate project planning methods and to establish the RAND Corporation. Fields called ‘operations research’ in the US and ‘operational research’ in the UK emerged from these activities.
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