Following initiation of ‘urban transportation studies’ in the US in the 1950s, the 1962 Federal-Aid Highway Act mandated the preparation of urban transportation plans as a condition for urbanized areas to receive construction funds (Weiner, 1997, 23). The focus of this requirement was the preparation of long-range plans for roads and public transport. Shortly afterwards, the Bureau of Public Roads issued memoranda requiring metropolitan areas to undertake ‘a continuing, comprehensive, and cooperative (3C) planning process’ consisting of: establishing an organization to carry out the planning process; development of local goals and objectives; surveys and inventories of existing conditions and facilities; analyses of current conditions and calibration of forecasting techniques; forecasting of future activity and travel; evaluation of alternative transportation networks resulting in a recommended transportation plan; staging of the transportation plan; and identification of resources to implement it (Weiner, 1997, 25).
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