The Changing Geography of Wine Production
Edited by Elisa Giuliani, Andrea Morrison and Roberta Rabellotti
Chapter 3: The Changing Geography of Science in Wine: Evidence from Emerging Countries
Lorenzo Cassi, Andrea Morrison and Roberta Rabellotti 1 INTRODUCTION Universities and public research organizations (PROs) are key actors in national innovation systems, their primary mission being to enhance indigenous scientific and technological knowledge (Amsden, 1989; Lall, 1992; Nelson, 1993; Fagerberg and Godinho, 2005; Brundenius et al., 2009). Increasingly, beyond their traditional activities in education, training and research they also undertake a ‘third mission’, interacting with industry and contributing to the development and upgrading of the domestic technological and production capabilities (Mowery and Sampat, 2005; Yusuf and Nabeshima, 2007). In the advanced economies, a literature on scientific and research productivity of the different institutional contexts (for example, USA versus Europe) has flourished in recent years (Dosi et al., 2006; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000). Instead, as pointed out by Mazzoleni (2008) in less developed countries, a good understanding of the contribution and the functioning of research organizations is still a long way off. Nonetheless, in scientific areas such as agriculture there is clearly a need to undertake research locally and develop knowledge and technologies suited to the specific conditions of each country and region (Vessuri, 1990; Albuquerque, 2004). A study on the wine sector represents a very interesting case in which to investigate whether the economic catch-up (if not forging ahead) between latecomers and forerunners is associated with a similar catch-up process in their scientific capabilities. As discussed in Chapter 2 by Cusmano et al., since the beginning of the 1990s the supremacy of Old World longstanding wine leaders such as Italy...