The Changing Geography of Wine Production
Edited by Elisa Giuliani, Andrea Morrison and Roberta Rabellotti
Chapter 5: University Involvement in Wine Region Development: A Comparative Case Study between Universidad de Talca (Chile) and Universidad de Cuyo (Argentina)
Martin Kunc and Scott Tiffin INTRODUCTION 1 Since the 1980s, the concept of a ‘national system of innovation’ to study the linkages between firms, organizations and knowledge creation institutions has emerged (Freeman, 1987; Lundvall, 1992, 2002). This concept is based on several assumptions: one considers that key elements of the knowledge base are highly localized; another is that the interactive nature of the innovation process means that it is socially embedded. As a consequence of both these assumptions, systems of innovation differ significantly in terms of their capacity for capitalizing on new sources of knowledge and their productive capabilities (Feldman et al., 2006). Cooke (1992, 2001) coined the term ‘regional system of innovation’ to describe the systems of innovation localized in a region, a level below the national system of innovation that might have cultural or historical homogeneity and where localized economic development can be identified. However, regional systems of innovation differ in their level of development. Schiller (2006) suggests that in nascent innovation systems in developing countries such as Argentina and Chile it is more important to learn how to assimilate and improve existing technologies than to generate new ones, since many technologies are often only new to local firms. In this situation, universities can become important actors in emerging regional innovation systems (Giuliani and Arza, 2009). In this role, universities provide a qualified workforce, locally adapted research, appropriate services and technologies for their regional stakeholders. Thus, universities are simultaneously enhancing the absorptive capacity of the regional system of...
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