Chapter 2: How Are Russian Energy Policies Formulated? Linking the Actors and Structures of Energy Policy
Pami Aalto, David Dusseault, Markku Kivinen and Michael D. Kennedy INTRODUCTION In this chapter we discuss how energy policy actors in Russia formulate the policies that together form the multi-level and complex space of Russian energy politics. Such policy formation processes can be found on various levels ranging from the national to interregional and global levels, all of which are interrelated. We start by outlining the main energy policy actors in Russia. Next, we discuss what interests they develop vis-à-vis the policy environments which they must assess and interpret in order to develop viable policies. In a more theoretical sense, those policy environments represent the structure of which the actors are part; to grasp the qualities of that structure properly, we discuss its various dimensions. We then elaborate how certain key events can induce actors to reorient their interests and correspondingly alter their perceptions of the policy environment, and ultimately, adjust their policies. In developing this model we account for how Russian energy actors position themselves in relation to each other, to foreign energy companies operating in Russia, Russia’s energy transit states, other producer and consumer states, and with international institutions and organizations. We end up with a new synthetic, comprehensive and generic analytical model which we will call a social structurationist model of energy policy formation. The generic nature of the model means that it is applicable to any case of energy political agency although our main interest in this book will be in Russian energy policy actors....
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