Chapter 3: Public and Business Actors in Russia’s Energy Policy
Markku Kivinen INTRODUCTION In this chapter I analyse the contradictory interests of some of the most important public and business actors involved in the formulation and implementation of Russia’s energy policies. To highlight these different interests – and the debates and conflicts their pursuit has caused throughout the post-Soviet era – I will anchor my discussion to the social structurationist analytical model introduced in this book (see Chapter 2). In particular, I will argue that the interests of energy policy actors are not given or inherent to them, but develop through historical processes of competition and interaction among them (cf. Wendt, 1999). These processes are discursive in nature, evident in the different ways in which actors articulate and frame their own interests in relation to those of the other players. By examining those processes we can outline how energy policy actors become institutionalized into the various public and private entities, and hybrid forms, in which we find them in a given historical situation (see Chapter 2). This is important because we often disagree on what types of actors actually are involved in Russian energy politics and what interests they are actually pursuing. My discursive approach to the institutionalization of energy policy actors and interaction between them suggests that we need to consider not only the actors’ intentions but also the wider discursive fields on the various levels of which they are part (cf. Chapter 2; Natorski and Surralles, 2008). This entails analysing the interaction between different actors and discourses (cf. Kivinen, 2002)...
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