Nina Tynkkynen and Pami Aalto1 INTRODUCTION This chapter addresses the environmental sustainability of Russia’s energy policies. Focusing mainly on national level developments in Russia, we will scrutinize in particular the role of energy efficiency, savings and renewable energy in the country. On this basis we will assess to what extent an ‘environmental sustainability frame’ (see Chapter 2) is emerging to guide the formation of energy policies in Russia (for the more global picture of Russian energy policies in the context of climate change, see Chapter 10). The promotion of energy efficiency, savings and renewable energy is conditioned by both constraints and opportunities within the policy environment, including its resource geographic, financial, institutional and ecological dimensions. To fully account for these dimensions of the policy environment we will use primary data such as official documents, reports and statistics; and interviews with Russian energy policy actors and experts, as well as with Finnish experts and industry representatives familiar with energy sector cooperation with Russia, conducted in St. Petersburg, Moscow and various locations in Finland in summer 2009. As the environmental sustainability of Russian energy policy is an area on which relatively few studies are available in English, we will also make use of what to external observers may prove to be a surprisingly rich debate in Russia, referring in parallel to Anglophone studies by Western institutions and other research. After this introductory section, the Russian national understandings of sustainable development and environmental sustainability of energy are discussed against the backdrop of the...
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