Chapter 20: Islamic Civil Society and Social Capital in Turkey: The Gülen Community
Ahmet Yükleyen Introduction Theoretical discussion on the interaction of globalization and national diversity management has concentrated on the tension between the particularities of the context and the universal homogenization of AngloAmerican standards. This chapter suggests two ways to expand the discussion on diversity management. First, it applies lessons from Westernoriented globalization on the relationship of diversity and development in the cultural context of Turkey, which is often presented as a ‘bridge between East and West’. The role of civic culture in promoting democratization has re-emerged in Western scholarship, which could be useful to examine political and economic development in the ‘non-Western’ context.1 The cultural diversity within each country has to be studied to draw lessons on the global scale.2 Turkey’s presumed in-between identity indicates that the context of each country regardless of its subjection to occidental or oriental discourse creates particular conditions and approaches to manage diversity. Second, diversity management literature’s level of analysis primarily focuses on the company, national or multinational. The goal of increasing market efficiency and respecting human dignity through the recognition of ethnic, racial, gender, religious and other identity within companies could have implications for state–society relations as well. On the one hand, the national context in each country significantly shapes the diversity management strategy in each company.3 On the other, lessons of cultural diversity management could fruitfully be applied to state–society interaction. The public (un)recognition of emerging group identities could challenge or facilitate the economic development of a country, depending on...
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