Conceptual and Methodological Advances
Edited by Frank Vanclay and Ana Maria Esteves
Chapter 11: Development-induced Community Resettlement 1
87 Displacement and Resettlement (www.displacement.net) has been established. Research institutions addressing development-induced resettlement include China’s National Research Centre for Resettlement at Hohai University and University of Oxford’s Refugee Study Centre. The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank house a large number of resettlement specialists. A series of reports from the World Bank are of particular importance (World Bank, 1980, 1993, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004). Policy-relevant theoretical frameworks of the resettlement process A substantial body of policy-relevant theory exists on the global experience with development-induced and, more specifically, dam-induced involuntary community resettlement. I have combined two major theoretical frameworks into a single theory that also incorporates other important contributions (Scudder, 2005). Dating back to the late 1970s, the first is my four-stage framework which focuses on how a majority of resettlers can be expected to behave over two generations during a successful resettlement process that enables them to improve their livelihood and become project beneficiaries (Scudder, 1981, 1985, 1993, 1997a, 1997b, 2005; Scudder and Colson, 1982). The second framework, developed during the 1990s, is Cernea’s ‘impoverishment risks and reconstruction model’ (Cernea, 1996, 1997, 1999; Cernea and McDowell, 2000). The four-stage framework The four-stage framework involves: • • • • stage 1: planning for resettlement prior to physical removal; stage 2: coping with the initial drop in living standards that tends to follow removal; stage 3: initiation of economic development and community formation activities that are necessary to improve living standards of firstgeneration resettlers; stage 4: handing over a sustainable resettlement process to the second...