The External Dimension of the European Research Area
Edited by Heiko Prange-Gstöhl
Chapter 1: The European Research Area ‘Goes Global’: An Introduction
Heiko Prange-Gstöhl1 This introductory chapter will provide the framework for the two parts of the book that will deal with ‘global challenges and the external dimension of the ERA’ and ‘policy coordination in the external dimension of the ERA’. This chapter will first give an overview of the different phases of the development of the European Research Area (ERA) more generally. It will then present the evolution of the international dimension in the Community’s science and technology (S&T) policies and will explore the reasons why the external ERA dimension should be fostered. The chapter will conclude with some conceptual considerations on two of the core pillars of the external dimension of the ERA: research policy coordination and tackling global challenges effectively. These two issues are closely interrelated: on the one hand policy coordination has the potential to enable actors to address major problems more effectively (under certain circumstances that will be discussed in this book), on the other hand the ever more pressing need to address global challenges more effectively (and efficiently) has the potential to ‘motivate’ actors to closer coordinate their individual (that is regional, national, European, international) policies. THE EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA: A NASCENT INTEGRATION CONCEPT An Emerging European Research Policy Research policy in Europe is considered as a typical multi-level policy area (Borrás 2003; Grande 2000). Consequently, different territorial levels own autonomous decision-making capacities in research policies (Grande 2001). While early attempts of European states to cooperate in research policies started with the EURATOM...