Table of Contents

International Science and Technology Cooperation in a Globalized World

International Science and Technology Cooperation in a Globalized World

The External Dimension of the European Research Area

Edited by Heiko Prange-Gstöhl

In a globalized knowledge-economy, the European Union (EU) needs a new approach to its international science and technology (S & T) policies by focusing on improved coherence across the different tiers of government and by demonstrating leadership in tackling serious global challenges. The contributors to this book analyze European S & T policies in several areas of global concern as well as by exposing both the pitfalls of policy coordination and its potential to contribute to a more coherent international S & T policy. They highlight the interactions between national, European and international policies, and explore how a common European policy for international S & T cooperation could work, and under which conditions. The book concludes that an EU external S & T policy is more likely to emerge if member states and the European Commission focus on a limited number of strategic priorities where Europe really can make a difference.

Chapter 6: Enabling Institutional Responses to Innovation in Latecomer Countries

Padmashree Gehl Sampath

Subjects: innovation and technology, innovation policy, technology and ict, politics and public policy, international politics

Extract

1 Padmashree Gehl Sampath SYSTEM OF INNOVATION IN LATECOMER CONTEXTS The systems of innovation framework emerged as a response to conventional economic analyses of technological change, which underplayed the role of institutions as well as the evolutionary nature of technological change, stressing mainly the role of market incentives for the allocation of information in society. Critiquing the notions of conventional economics, two fundamental assumptions form the core of the systems approach. Firstly, innovation (as opposed to information or even knowledge) is the result of the interactions between firms and other organizations within a system, shaped by social, economic, political and historical dimensions. The inclusion of contextual, social and historical factors helps to understand innovation (and its determinants) as it is and as it occurs in most contexts: incremental in nature and boosted from within the system. Secondly, institutions are central to explaining innovative success. Institutions and organizations are routinely involved in the creation and dissemination of useful tacit and codified knowledge that needs to be applied to the production process and in creating an enabling learning environment.2 An enabling learning environment is one that promotes interactive learning, the process through which the diverse actors in both the public and private domains of the system communicate and collaborate for the creation, use and dissemination of new economic knowledge (Johnson and Lundvall 2003, p. 159). Within a given system, it is assumed that the learning capacity and the actions of any set/sets of actors affect the way other actors make decisions, and...

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