The External Dimension of the European Research Area
Edited by Heiko Prange-Gstöhl
Chapter 8: Coordinate to Collaborate: The Governance Challenges for European International S & T Policy
8. Coordinate to collaborate: the governance challenges for European international S&T policy Jakob Edler INTRODUCTION: THREE MEGA TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL S&T POLICIES This chapter discusses an increasingly important yet challenging development, the international coordination of nationally rooted policies or funding schemes to support international collaboration in science and technology (S&T).1 It conceptualizes ways in which government ministries or agencies can realize synergies when it comes to supporting the international activities of their researchers. Although the principles developed for international coordination can be generalized, it is set in the context of the European Research Area (ERA). This is important since European instruments have provided novel opportunities for coordination, in various forms and with varying success. Some of those coordination activities have targeted or entailed international S&T collaboration by combining two international levels: they have allowed national ministries and agencies to coordinate with other partners from Europe (‘international’ from the national perspective), in order to better support international S&T activities which have often reached beyond Europe’s borders. The topicality of policy coordination for international S&T collaboration becomes obvious when looking at three related, mutually reinforcing, mega trends. The first mega trend is that international collaboration in science and technology became of increasing importance. All indicators, such as co-publications, co-inventions and joint research projects, point in the same direction. This is true not only in absolute terms, but also as regards the relative importance of international collaboration which has grown vs. single-authored publications and national co-authorship...
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