Chapter 14: Economic Integration Strategies for Korean Reunification: Lessons from Recent History
Jiyoung Park GUIDELINES FOR KOREAN REUNIFICATION Fifty years after the Korean War, the first inter-Korean summit meeting was held in Pyongyang on 15 June, 2000, where the two Koreas agreed on a Joint Declaration which led to various action plans. Among them, gradual stepwise approaches to reunification assuring co-existence and co-prosperity of the two Koreas described in Article 2 of the Joint Declaration are shown (Lim and Chung, 2004: 176), but it needs to be understood as part of a three-stage National Community Unification Formula (NCUF). As shown in Figure 14.1, the NCUF suggested basic guidelines for Korean reunification as a long-term strategy, which was announced on 11 September, 1989 by President Roh Tae-woo. The first stage, ‘reconciliation and cooperation’, shows ‘the two Koreas would mutually recognize and respect each other, maintain peace amid division and work to overcome hostility and mistrust through exchanges and cooperation in the social, cultural, and economic fields’ (Ministry of Unification, 2005: 14). In the second phase, the NCUF adopts a ‘Confederation’ stage for establishing a peace mechanism, which would lead to the fostering of ‘a common livelihood in the social, cultural, and economic realms’ and establishes regular summit meetings between the 1st phase Reconciliation and cooperation 2nd phase 3rd phase Confederation Unification Figure 14.1 Three phases of a National Community Unification Formula for Korea 197 M2595 - RICHARDSON PRINT.indd 197 21/04/2011 09:17 198 Regional and urban policy and planning on the Korean peninsula two Koreas, although each Korea ‘maintains sovereignty over foreign affairs’...
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