Chapter 4: Land Transportation in Singapore: Tax and Regulatory Policies to Promote Sustainable Development
Stephen L.H. Phua INTRODUCTION 1. With sustained economic growth, the demand for private transportation becomes an aspiration for those with increased disposable income. This poses a huge urban planning challenge for major cities as the trend towards urbanization continues unabated. Today, half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. Based on current trend projections, the world will become primarily urbanized by 2050 with the main source of population growth emanating from urban areas.1 In Singapore, the land transportation sector accounts for about 19 per cent of total greenhouse gas emissions, 13 per cent of our overall energy consumption and 50 per cent of the fine particulate matter (specifically PM2.5) in the air.2 Land Transport Authority (LTA), the statutory board charged with the key responsibility of managing land transportation, has identified several major targets for reducing energy consumption and pollution by 2030. The main strategies to be adopted are: (a) control vehicle population and discourage usage; (b) promote the use of public transport;3 (c) improve fuel economy; (d) promote the use of green vehicles; 4 and (e) facilitate the use of alternative transport modes. UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities Report 2010/2011 Bridging the Urban Divide, Earthscan, 2010, page IX. 2 Inter-Ministerial Committee on Sustainable Development, “A Lively and Liveable Singapore: Strategies for Sustainable Growth”, Ministry of Environment and Water Resources and Ministry of National Development, 2009, page 56. 3 Yam Ah Mee, Chief Executive Officer, Land Transport Authority (LTA), speech made during the inaugural World Urban Transport Leaders...
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