National Government Interventions in a Global Arena
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Edited by Frank Wijen, Kees Zoeteman, Jan Pieters and Paul van Seters
Chapter 5: Globalisation and National Incentives for Protecting Environmental Goods: Types of Goods, Trade Effects, and International Collective Action Problems
1 Alkuin Kölliker SUMMARY This chapter investigates how globalisation affects the incentives and possibilities of countries to protect different types of environmental goods autonomously or in cooperation with other countries, and how countries can respond to the challenges and opportunities posed by globalisation. The boundaries of jurisdictions, environmental goods, and markets are often not commensurable. National environmental policy measures may affect environmental goods and markets beyond national boundaries. The distribution of environmental benefits and economic costs and benefits inside and outside national borders affects countries’ incentives and possibilities for autonomous national measures and for the participation in collective international measures. Economic globalisation affects these incentives and possibilities through trade and trade policy integration, because it expands the boundaries of markets and makes them more international. My central argument is that a substantial part of national incentives for environmental protection can be explained by taking into account both the type of environmental goods to be protected (private goods, public goods, club goods, or common pool resources) and the side-effects of protection measures on international competitiveness and 1 I am indebted to Frank Wijen and Jan Pieters for their valid and constructive comments on earlier versions of this chapter. All remaining errors are mine. The views expressed do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs. 127 M2782 - WIJEN TEXT.indd 127 16/11/2011 11:30 128 A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy, Second Edition trade (positive, neutral, or negative impact). The combination of the incentives...
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