Chapter 16: Legal Education
David S. Clark* 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION European Origins The first large-scale use of systematic education to train legal professionals occurred in Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Two universities distinguished themselves in developing and transmitting knowledge to such an extent that they attracted students from throughout Europe. The University of Bologna became famous for its instruction in Roman law and canon law while the University of Paris, renowned for its faculties of theology and liberal arts, influenced legal education through the structure of its organization. By 1400, 46 universities existed in Europe, most of which had a faculty of Roman law and canon law.1 England, which participated in this European development, offered Roman and canon law in its two universities at Oxford and Cambridge. This served the lawyers and judges who worked in church courts and in certain special royal courts, but it was only near the end of the twentieth century that law school education replaced apprenticeship (in London) as the dominant avenue to legal careers.2 The English historical variation from university legal education in continental Europe helps to explain in part the divergence between the civil law and the common law traditions. 1.2 The Dominating Role of Church, State and Market Figure 16.1 sets out a simplified macro-social model for illustrating the relationships in society between university legal education and dominating spheres of influence such as church, state and market. It is a premise of this model that at different times in the history of cultures a...
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